What is organic wine
After a long legal period of many years, the European Regulation 203/2012 has put black and white on what it means to produce organic wine. If previously we could only speak of “wine produced with grapes from organic farming”, today it is all the production of wine to be regulated by precise rules. In particular, only the producers who can boast the Bio logo are:
– use only grapes grown with organic farming methods, therefore without synthetic chemicals and without GMOs;
– they make wine using only the oenological products and processes authorized by regulation 203/2012, avoiding the addition of chemicals normally used to correct wine.
Among the latter, the most important provision is that which defines the maximum amount of sulfites that may be present in organic wine: 100 mg / l for red wines and 150 mg / l for white and rosé.
What is biodynamic wine
If organic wine follows the rules of organic farming, biodynamic wine is obtained from biodynamic agriculture. Although not yet recognized at the legislative level, this niche of agriculture is regulated by the Demeter association: in addition to completely removing chemistry and minimizing the use of machinery, biodynamic agriculture is based on respect for the natural course of nature – in particular the phases of the moon – and its resources, as well as the use of biodynamic preparations (natural compost) in certain phases of the year. The result will be naturally healthy plants, of high quality and able to defend themselves independently from pests. As well as organic wine, biodynamic wine also does not reset sulphites, but it limits them further: 70 mg / l in red wines, 90 mg / l in white wines and 60 mg / l in those sparkling.
What is natural wine
Slightly simpler is to explain instead what are natural wines: they are wines made without chemical additives or manipulations or additions by man. Even in this case, however, there are some nuances: the vines, all low yield, are treated but only with natural substances such as sulfur and copper, reduced to a minimum, as well as fermentation and refinement (discover these and the other phases how wine is made!) are made only with indigenous yeasts already present in the grapes. Even for sulphites, in some cases, you can turn a blind eye: even if they should not be added to those that develop naturally during alcoholic fermentation, if particularly deficient vintages occur, sulfites can be used in minimum quantities, on average 30 mg / l for red and rosé wines and 50 mg / l for white wines, (1/4 of the limit set by law).